by Samuel Osho | Mar 27, 2018 | Speaking, Writing
100 Redundant Expressions You Should Avoid In Writing
In William Shakespeare’s famous play, Hamlet
, a popular phrase was uttered in the second act by Polonius, “Brevity is the soul of wit […]” This phrase is adjudged as one of the countless witty expressions of the English writer. If wit connotes wisdom, it implies that it is of necessity for you to be brief and concise if you want to make sense either while speaking or writing.
In the heat of the jungle, the lions that go for the jugular are the ones that survive. No stories or perambulating, they go for the kill! These are writers that get the applause because they put their readers in mind while writing. Readers love writers who go straight to the point; they launch words like stones in David’s sling. In the long run, they make their words count because they are not in a race to fulfill a word count.
I am sure you can easily spot such writers in a crowd. If they are scripting a novel, they shove aside redundant expressions and clear the path as you race towards the end of the spectrum called suspense. If they are writing articles, they use powerful verbs instead of adverbs and adjectives. I know why you love them so much: it’s because they use simple language to explain everything – from chaos to serenity.
Editing is a tough turf for many writers. While you edit your work
, one of the clutters you must eliminate is the use of redundant expressions or often known as needless repetitions. Am I saying don’t repeat yourself? Yes, you only need to speak once for you to be heard. To every rule, there is an exception, use repetition in the case of emphasis or clarification of a topical theme.
Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his iconic speech in August 1963 but we can’t get “I have a dream” out of our heads perhaps because he repeated it eight times in his speech. So, repetition has its place. However, this article will open your eyes to some needless expressions and unnecessary duplicity that can be axed out of your writing. It will give wings to your writing. The words in parentheses should be removed.
- ATM (machine)
- PIN (number)
- HIV (virus)
- LCD (display)
- GRE (exam)
- WASSCE (exam)
- RAM (memory)
- (live) witness
- (little) baby
- evolve (over time)
- (basic) necessities
- (basic) fundamentals
- (actual) facts
- (annual) anniversary
- (exploded) suddenly
- sat (down)
- stand (up)
- rise (up)
- raise (up)
- fall (down)
- drop (down)
- dwindle (down)
- compete (with each other)
- (old) adage
- (natural) instinct
- (new) innovation
- (new) invention
- (two) twins
- (pair of) twins
- (mutually) agreed
- (mutual) cooperation
- merge (together)
- refer (back) to your notes
- (armed) gunman
- (necessary) prerequisites
- (absolutely) essential
- (unexpected) emergency
- (original) founder
- (first and) foremost
- (brief) summary
- (free) gift
- (finally) completed
- (final) conclusion
- (final) outcome
- (final) end
- (final) ultimatum
- (prior) planning
- (advance) planning
- (each) individual
- (personally) think
- (annoying) pests
- (past) experience
- (new) breakthrough
- (different) kinds
- cancel (out)
- repeat (again)
- (foreign) imports
- (false) pretense
- (difficult) dilemma
- ask (a question)
- (invited) guests
- few (in number)
- (added) bonus
- enter (in)
- (end) result
- (unexpected) surprise
- written (down)
- (closed) fist
- (general) public
- (harmful) injuries
- grow (in size)
- (proposed) plan
- reply (back)
- revert (back)
- round (in shape)
- true (facts)
- three a.m (in the morning)
- (twelve) noon or midnight
- (white) snow
- undergraduate (student)
- (tiny) bit
- (regular) routine
- protest (against)
- pursue (after)
- close (proximity)
- (important) essentials
- cheaper (in cost)
- disappear (from view)
- (completely) eliminate
- advance (forward)
- tuna (fish)
- spell out (in detail)
- warn (in advance)
- (crystal) clear
- (in the field of) biology
- (in a period of) a week
- whether (or not)
- share (together)
- postpone (until later)
- kneel (down)
Let’s see how much you have learnt from this article with this short exercise. Eliminate the redundancies in the passage below:
“Mona had a difficult dilemma. She worked for a caterer, and from 9 a.m. in the morning until 12 noon, her job was to hand out free gifts at the mall. But her close personal friend Myrtle had just given birth to a baby girl, and she had promised to take care of Myrtle’s pair of twins while Myrtle was in the hospital. To Mona, the twins were annoying pests, but she would keep her promise. When Mona explained to her boss that Myrtle’s early delivery had come as an unexpected surprise, she could see the intense fury in his eyes. Silently, he prepared the different varieties of his decorative garnishes. The evil fiend then suddenly exploded and spelled out in detail why Mona was fired. Mona’s future prospects looked dim, as jobs were few in number. Mona now runs her own company, so getting fired may possibly have been her lucky break.”
“Mona had a dilemma. She worked for a caterer, and from 9 a.m. until noon, her job was to hand out gifts at the mall. But her close friend Myrtle had just given birth to a girl, and she had promised to take care of Myrtle’s twins while Myrtle was in the hospital. To Mona, the twins were pests, but she would keep her promise. When Mona explained to her boss that Myrtle’s early delivery had come as a surprise, she could see the fury in his eyes. Silently, he prepared the varieties of his garnishes. The fiend then exploded and spelled out why Mona was fired. Mona’s future looked dim, as jobs were few. Mona now runs her own company, so getting fired may have been her lucky break.”
Eliminating redundancies will be a lot easier with the following resources:
In conclusion, wordiness and vagueness in writing starve clarity of message. Your writing will be a lot better if you pay attention to these common redundancies.
If this has helped you in any way, then help me by hitting the share button (smiles). Please don’t hesitate to add to the list of redundancies in the comment section.
by Samuel Osho | Nov 27, 2017 | Personal Development, Speaking
Five Effective Ways To Overcome Stage Fright
Get it right! It is normal for you to feel a gust of nervousness whenever you are called upon to speak in public. Do you hear the bumbling of butterflies in your stomach whenever you hold the microphone? It shows that you are human and a complete human being with a functional nervous system.
This reminds me of a line from American humorist, Mark Twain: “There are only two types of speakers in the world. 1. The nervous and 2. Liars.” This quote posits that all speakers are nervous or liars – meaning that the liars behave as if the nervousness is non-existent.
If you are observant, you will notice that this nervous feeling also shows up when you are about to write an exam, talk to your boss, or ask a girl out. This feeling of fear is the result of a rush of adrenaline delivered to the body in a bid to successfully accomplish the task at hand.
The point is that nervousness is more physiological than psychological; it starts from the physiological point (heart rate, sweating, and so forth) before it leads to the psychological effects of feeling upset and nervous. I advise you to see fear as a normal physiological stimulus.
It is as simple as your body trying to help you, and it is your reaction to the help that will determine the result you get. What do you do with it? The most sensible step is to use it to your advantage. Don’t let the sudden surge of adrenaline toss you into the depths of nervousness. Instead, use it as the springboard to soar to the heights of impeccable delivery. It all depends on you. You can direct the surge into a profitable channel.
American public speaking instructor, Dale Carnegie, has a string of comforting words for you:
“The ability to conquer nervousness and speak with self-confidence is not difficult to acquire. It is not a gift bestowed by Providence on only a few rarely endowed individuals. Everyone can develop his own latent capacity if he has sufficient desire to do so.”
Having understood the physiological origin of nervousness and its psychological capability, we can explore ways of overcoming it. In agreement with the words of Carnegie, be fully aware that the power to defeat nervousness resides in you. I’ll share with you some practical and sure ways of using the natural adrenaline surge to your advantage.
Be prepared. If you go to the venue two hours ahead of the speaking engagement but with an empty head, you might end up not getting good results. Failure to prepare is preparing to fail. German artist, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, sums it up this way: “There is nothing more frightful than ignorance in action.”
Preparation is vital in public speaking and shows that you respect your audience. You don’t want them to go home empty handed without something new to hold on to.
Preparation Makes You Bold
Boldness comes naturally when you know what you want to talk about. I have seen folks preach a wonderful message from the pulpit in church and then later, have seen them stammer at a public discourse. This is because they felt confident and sound in the church message but knew next to nothing about the topic up for discussion at the public discourse. American author, Michael Mescon, emphasized the connection between stage fright and knowledge in a profound way: “Best way to conquer stage fright is to know what you are talking about.”
Preparation entails doing elaborate research on the main subject of your speech by studying volumes of materials that can increase your knowledge. This usually includes reviewing potentially relevant quotations, statistics, biographical data, and transcripts. Be sure to separate facts from your opinions and ensure that the information is current and related to your topic.
Preparation Involves Background Check
Get your materials ready in advance, ranging from your visual aids to projectors (if any) to your index cards. The stage of preparation is very crucial and is synonymous with having a critical analysis of all the factors that can make your speech a success. If you’re not prepared and do not know what to talk about, you have just opened yourself to nervousness and it will enslave you until your time lapses.
Find out how many people will be speaking at the event. Will you be the first person to break the ice? Or will you be the last person to mount the podium after five other speakers? Check out the program for the speakers beforehand.
Ask yourself what you can do to get the attention of the audience, even if they are close to complete exhaustion, such as when you are the last speaker. Making a joke about being last can help ease the tension.
Find out how much time will be allotted to your speech. Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, once said, “If I am given six hours to cut down a tree, I will use four to sharpen the ax head.” I hope you get the message. Preparation can never be overemphasized. Preparation of what to say and how to say it brings out the best in you.
“Best way to conquer stage fright is to know what you are talking about.” – Michael Mescon
Even the pros practise and you should practise your speech too. I was surprised when I saw the picture of Portuguese footballer Cristiano Ronaldo on Facebook training on the pitch of the Santiago Bernabeu just the day following the glamorous win of his third FIFA Ballon D’Or, as the Best Footballer in the world in January 2015. He had just won an illustrious individual award yet he was back on the pitch practicing the next day.
American communicator, Somers White, insisted that the success of a speech is determined long before the speaker mounts the podium, “90% of how well the talk will go is determined before the Speaker steps on the platform.”
In his illuminating book, How To Develop Self-confidence and Influence People by Public Speaking, Dale Carnegie revealed how some famous speakers prepared for their speeches.
“Lloyd George, when he was a member of a debating society in his hometown in Wales, often strolled along the lanes, talking and gesturing to the trees and fence posts. Lincoln, in his younger days, often walked a round trip of thirty or forty miles to hear a famous speaker like Breckenridge. He came home from these scenes so stirred, so determined to be a speaker that he gathered the other hired workers about him in the fields and, mounting a stump, he made speeches and told them stories.”
Practise, practise, and practise! Practising is a sure antidote to your spell of nervousness. Just like Lloyd George, you can talk to the trees in your backyard and make gestures at the pedestrian lights on the walkway while going to work. Absorb the material as much as you can. You can even rehearse in front of your family members or close friends. Whenever possible, practise with the podium or a platform you are likely to use for the live delivery of your speech – this goes a long way to prepare your subconscious mind for the work at hand. Imagine yourself giving the speech and act it out.
3. Make Your Audience a Circle of Friends
Be early. Punctuality is the soul of business—perhaps the soul of public speaking too. In my first days of public speaking, I would go early to the venue and make friends. It is easier to speak with a group of friends than with a band of strangers. You feel comfortable and more at home while talking with them. This is a helpful pointer for starters in the industry of public speaking.
Going early to the event will remove any surprise that you might possibly encounter. It helps you understand your audience, and adjust beforehand if adjustment is needed in your speech to suit their social class or literacy level. Arriving early will also help you to have a feel of the platform/podium as you envision yourself standing there, ready to give your speech.
This rule has saved me several times because the audience often related to me as a part of them because I was yet to be introduced. Later on, when you are weaned from the fangs of stage fright and nervousness, you might not need to do this anymore.
In December 2012, as an intern in Schlumberger Nigeria, I knew I had to give a presentation on a tool to a group of field engineers and specialists. They were experts and they were also my managers. I had all the excuses in the world to panic and be nervous.
Having prepared well for the presentation, I stepped out to face the audience, about sixty people in number. I started changing gazes and speaking to every area of the room when I noticed a man sitting in the second row of the middle column. What caught my attention was the decorous smile which painted his face creating lovely ridges and contours.
Whenever I was about to succumb to the monster of nervousness, I would look at his face and strength would surge through me. This was when I discovered the power of a smiling face and how far it could go in boosting your confidence.
You’ll always have one person with a smiling face in the audience who is interested in your speech. Locate that light and harness the energy for your use. It is like getting a cookie at the beginning of the speech, and you delicately munch on it until the very last word.
5. Relax and Speak Like a King
Speeding through your speech is likely to accentuate your nervousness. Don’t be in a rush to start your speech. Take a deep breath and let the rays of your eyes acclimatize with the eyeballs of your audience.
Relax and speak like a King and a Queen, like that special person they have been waiting for. Whenever I take a deep breath, it is tantamount to letting out the wind of nervousness and mounting the wings of confidence.
Finally, if these methods are practically applied, then your stage fright and nervousness will be a thing of the past. I have used these methods and they have been of tremendous help, especially when I am to engage an entirely new audience.
It is your turn to share with me. I am curious! How did you overcome stage fright? Have you tried any of these five ways in the past?